S-PARCS’s strategy to boost replications of the demonstrated solutions starts with the Lighthouse Parks partners, and provides them a platform to develop and realise their own visions.
Parallel to that, and asbackbone for the S-PARCS post-project endeavour, WP6 prepares the ground for supporting the FollowerCommunity (see Section 4) to promote or implement the successfully tested S-PARCS solutions and instruments. To maximise impact, S-PARCS aligns a diverse and ambitious group of industrial parks that:
- Represents different industrial branches
- Accommodates companies ranging from SMEs to the headquarters of international enterprises
- Represents low-to-medium energy-intensive production processes
- Includes parks that are at different levels of energy efficiency advancements
- Have different experiences with joint energy services and energy cooperation operate in different (regulatory and climate) framework
S-PARCS aims at achieving significant, lasting and replicable impacts
Quantification of impact of S-PARCS
Overview of characteristics of the Lighthouse Parks
The objectives were to carry out a feasibility study for PV installations for shared self-consumption among the different companies that exist in each pavilion and then analyse the case of shared self-consumption of the pavilions that compose the park, considering them as a single consumer.
Of the available options, “Subject to compensation” (the surplus energy is paid to the producer with an average market price of 0.047 euros/kWh) – was chosen. Within this modality of self-consumption, two scenarios have been studied both for the pavilions and for the park as a whole.
– Scenario 1: Dimensioning for self-consumption only (no electricity is fed into the grid)
– Scenario 2: Sizing for an annual net energy balance (total PV production = annual electricity consumption)
– KPI overview:
Suitable KPIs according to D4.1  and D4.2  have been calculated assuming the implementation of the proposed solution. Technical KPIs achieve good results, the same applies for economic KPIs. Photovoltaic solar technology is highly adaptable to all types of environments, thanks to its modularity; it allows great flexibility and integration, is easy to install and has great potential for replication. The social KPIs are quite good, although the COVID-19 crisis situation has particularly affected the companies in the park and the total number of stakeholders in the park who have responded has been lower than expected. The legal and regulatory KPIs are also good as the Spanish government approved Royal Decree 244/19 which regulates the administrative, technical and economic conditions of self-consumption in Spain and provides greater security and certainty to users. This has also simplified the administrative procedures and the aids from the administration for this type of solutions have been activated.
– Objectives :
One of the most promising energy cooperation solutions regards the development of a combined heat and power plant (CHP) network. In the first step, the CHP network will be served with natural gas and in a second implementation (and second feasibility plan) an anaerobic digestor is planned that will utilize waste and produce biogas for the CHP.
– KPI Overview:
The KPIs have been calculated assuming the implementation of the proposed solution. The lowest results are related to the legal and regulatory KPIs and, partially, to the financial and economic KPIs. This is due to expected restrictions and obstacles that may arise during the stipulation and the contract period (between the companies and the park). Additionally, the investment is significant compared to other investments at the park already existing. With respect to the companies, high involvement of them is expected. This determines a medium result of the organizational KPIs. Finally, regarding the technical and environmental KPIs, excellent results are expected. In particularly for the latter, as high emission savings are expected. Also, significant beneficial social impacts can be assumed, such as an increasing employment rate in the park for operation and maintenance of the plants.
The objective of the study was to evaluate the costs and feasibility of installing electric charging points on company premises and compare the costs, expressed in a surcharge on top of the price of electricity, of individually installed charging points versus shared charging points in four suitable locations in the industrial park.
– KPI overview:
The Figure shows the results of the KPI evaluation based on information derived from this report (assuming an EV share of 10 % for the local implementation and a surcharge of 0.10 €/kWh for all four analysed sites) as well information gathered during the confidential interviews, using a selection of KPIs as indicators for the respective sub-categories.
Given that all percentage values are above 0 (0 = neutral), the implementation of this energy cooperation solution (namely the installation of shared electric vehicle charging points) shows to be a promising one, whereas the least positive values can be found in environmental and organizational KPIs. The reason for these results is the negligible reduction of primary energy consumption and GHG emissions (compared to individual charging points per company) as well as little effects of the installation on local employment and stakeholder involvement respectively. Compared to conventional ICEVs these KPIs are expected to become significantly more positive.
The idea is to reuse the waste heat from the site by feeding it into the district heating network (DHN), thus replacing fossil fuels such as natural gas that is used as a primary energy source for the nearby DHN power plant.
The available waste heat has been calculated after a careful examination of the most suitable extraction points in the system for size and location, with the requirement to use heat exchangers and renounce heat pumps.
Two scenarios were evaluated: feed-in for building heating throughout winter time and an additional demand during summer, as heat-to-cold technology and district cooling is enforced by the local DHN, which provides a good opportunity to utilize waste heat during summer time. Still, winter demand was estimated to be several times higher than summer demand.
– KPI overview
The technical KPIs achieve good results for this energy cooperation. The same applies to the legal and regulatory KPIs as the Spanish government approved the Royal Decree 244/19 which regulates the administrative, technical and economic conditions of self-consumption in Spain and provides greater security and certainty to users. In this case, it must also be considered that the administrative procedures for obtaining concessions are complex and depend on several administrations. But there is aid available from the regional government for this type of solution. The economic KPI for this solution is not so good partially because the solution has a long payback time, more than 11 years. The organizational KPIs are a relatively low as the COVID-19 crisis particularly affected the companies in the park and the total number of stakeholders in the park who have responded has been lower than expected. In the case of the social KPIs, the advantages provided by mini-hydraulic energy are hardly known at a social level.
The objectives pursued with the study carried out are the following:
– Perform a feasibility study of a hydropower installation for shared self-consumption among the different companies of the industrial park.
– Dimensioning of the installation, technical viability of the hydroelectric plant considering the topographic and hydroelectric characteristics of the dam.
– Calculation of hydroelectric production. Economic calculations of self-consumption combined with the sale of energy to the grid.
– Techno-economic optimization of hydroelectric installation.
– Analysis of the impact of the installation on the park’s electrical mix and analysis of its environmental impact.
– KPI overview:
The achieved results are similar to the case of Okamika-Gizaburuaga. The technical KPIs achieve good results. The same applies to the legal and regulatory KPIs as the Spanish government approved the Royal Decree 244/19 which regulates the administrative, technical and economic conditions of self-consumption in Spain and provides greater security and certainty to users. In this case, it must also be considered that the administrative procedures for obtaining concessions are complex and depend on several administrations. But there is aid available from the regional government for this type of solution. The economic KPIs for this solution are slightly negative, partially due to the even longer payback time. The organizational KPIs are a relatively low, because the COVID-19 crisis has particularly affected the companies in the park and the total number of stakeholders in the park who have responded to the cooperation opportunity has been lower than expected. In case of the social KPIs, the advantages provided by mini-hydraulic energy are hardly known at a social level.